The Natural Park of the Luberon has a rich and special fauna and flora and a great diversity of landscapes. The limestone massifs, which form canyons and combes, are privileged nesting places for birds of prey. Egyptian vulture, Bonelli’s eagle, Great Horned Owl, Golden Eagle, etc. The largest and rarest birds of prey in Europe come to brood in these rocky walls.
Typically Mediterranean vegetation grows at low altitudes and is home for typical species of the region. Herds of goats and sheep come to graze in the garrigue and enjoy the expanses of grassland that have been dry for hundreds of years. Alpine influences appear at high altitudes, especially at the top of the Lure mountain, and offer an unusual mix between the different species.
Half of the Luberon Natural Park is covered with different forest environments. Each of these forests has its own microcosm. At low altitude, where the agricultural plots have been left abandoned, evergreen oaks, garrigue and pines have thriven. In the 19th century, cedars from Algeria were planted on the Petit Luberon massif. This forest has an unusual style and ecosystem. The beeches, Scotch pines and firs located at the top of the Lure mountain are in the heart of the Biosphere Reserve. It shelters the black grouse, the hazel grouse and mountain forest birds.
Vineyards, meadows, fields of lavender and wheat, there are so many landscapes to discover. Extensive crops has allowed the maintenance of a large number of messicole plants that give the Luberon landscapes their colors. This flora is endangered in the country and is nevertheless essential to the maintenance of a rich fauna: little owls, larks, wild rabbits, small duke owl etc.
Because of the dry climate, wetlands are rather rare in the Luberon Natural Park. These areas are constantly evolving. Still, they host a rich fauna: beaver, hyla meridionalis, white-clawed crayfish, Pelobates cultripes, etc.
These different environments of the Luberon Regional Natural Park have allowed the development of rare species. The site has been classified as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in order to protect this unique heritage as much as possible.
The natural park also aims at protecting the built and cultural heritage such as perched villages, pastoralism, agriculture, etc.